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Ficient RNA replication resulting in almost 200000 RNA copies [27] from each RNAFicient RNA replication resulting in almost 200000 RNA copies [27] from each RNA template . Although replication-deficient particles provide a high level of safety, there is still a marginal risk of the generation of replication-proficient particles through nonhomologous recombination. To minimize this risk, spli
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Nto the viral backbone (Table 1). Viral vaccine vector systems, such asNto the viral backbone (Table 1). Viral vaccine vector systems, such as adenovirus (type 2 and 5), adeno-associated virus, retrovirus, lentivirus, poxvirus, alphavirus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), offer several potential advantages over traditional vaccines, even though [23,24] each of them show some limitations and side
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Nto the viral backbone (Table 1). Viral vaccine vector systems, such asNto the viral backbone (Table 1). Viral vaccine vector systems, such as adenovirus (type 2 and 5), adeno-associated virus, retrovirus, lentivirus, poxvirus, alphavirus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), offer several potential advantages over traditional vaccines, even though [23,24] each of them show some limitations and side
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Dvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease ofDvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity (Table 1). As DNAbased plasmid vaccines are non-live, non-replicating, non-spreading vaccines, there is a little or no risk of mutation or reversion to the virulent form as with viral vectors, therefore rais
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Taken into consideration , when using viral vectors for vaccination, including potentialTaken into consideration , when using viral vectors for vaccination, including potential integration, transcriptional activation of oncogenes, preexisting immunity against the viral vector and limitations , in transgenic capacity size. Several recombinant viral vectors, both RNA and DNA viruses, have been
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Ed vaccines) or viruses (inactivated vaccines) inactivated by chemical or physicalEd vaccines) or viruses (inactivated vaccines) inactivated by chemical or physical treatmentsToxoids vaccinesPurified exotoxins chemically inactivated into toxoids that retain the ability to induce toxin-neutralizing antibodiesSubunit/ polysaccharide vaccinesAntigenic components of pathogens: partly or fully pu
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Ovide [40] biological compatibility with less toxicity . According to the structural organizationOvide [40] biological compatibility with less toxicity . According to the structural organization, biodegradable nanoparticles are usually distinguished in nanospheres, where molecules are homogenously dispersed, adsorbed or dissolved within the polymeric matrix, and nanocapsules, where a polymer
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Ds virulent forms and can be local reactions at the usedDs virulent forms and can be local reactions at the used in immunodeficient hosts; not vaccine site) are required heat-labile to optimally trigger the adaptive immune system and generate long-term immunity; do not give rise to cytotoxic T cells; poor induction of mucosal immunity; difficult to produce in a scalable setting; quality and

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